TERMS & DEFINITIONS

A

A/B Test: An A/B test is a method of comparing two variations of an ad, piece of content, or other material so you can see which version performs better. Also known as split testing, A/B testing involves changing one small element at a time (like a headline or graphic) to refine your results. During A/B testing, only a portion of your audience sees each test. This allows you to create the most effective content before you release it to your entire following.

Ad Value – a monetary value given to coverage in relation to how much an ad of the same size would cost in a hard copy of the outlet.

Advocacy – Support or argument for a group, an organization, or a cause.

Algorithm –A formula that calculates the rank of search engine results. Algorithms evolve with the goal of providing a searcher with the most relevant content based on their specific search.

Alt Text/Tag – An SEO element for describing images to search engines. Because search engine bots cannot see images, the ALT tag helps with a string of words about the picture, often including an important keyword.

Anchor Text – Anchor text is the clickable, colored (usually blue) text that indicates a hyperlink. Anchor text is important for search engines and algorithms because it provides relevant information about where the link leads. Anchor text is changed using the HTML or CSS code.

B

Backlinks – Links that point from other websites to yours. These links are valuable because of their ability to pass authority (ranking power) from one website to another. In the simplest terms, links act as votes of confidence between websites. The higher the authority of the website giving the link, the more authority that link will pass to the website to which it’s pointing.

Black hat – Search engine optimization practices that violate Google’s quality guidelines.

Bots – Another name for search engine spiders or web crawlers.

Bounce Rate – The number of emails that couldn’t be delivered to inboxes (see Soft Bounce Rate and Hard Bounce Rate)

Brand Advocate – A person who loves your brand and continues to support your company and promote your services or products to new customers organically.

Breadcrumb – A navigation element that shows your current location in relation to the structure of the website.

Business Strategy – A long-term plan of action designed to achieve a particular goal or set of goals.

C

CAN-SPAM – A law that sets the rules for commercial email, establishes requirements for commercial messages, gives recipients the right to have you stop emailing them, and spells out tough penalties for violations.

Clickbait – The practice of writing sensationalized or misleading headlines in order to attract clicks on a piece of content. It often relies on exaggerating claims or leaving out key information in order to encourage traffic. The term is generally used in a dismissive sense.

Click Rate – The percentage of people who click on an email link after receiving an email campaign. Email click rates measure the immediate response rate of an email, and are often used as the primary conversion metric for a campaign.

Click Through Rate (CTR) – A metric that measures how many people clicked on an image, hyperlink, or CTA in an email.

Click To Open Rate (CTOR) – A metric/report used by email marketers to analyze their email marketing strategies. When the number of unique clicks for your emails is divided by the number of unique opens, the result you get is called the click to open rate (CTOR). Lower CTOR means you’ll have to streamline your email marketing strategies and aim to reach out to the right people so that they’ll open your emails. Doing this will improve the CTOR of your email campaigns.

Communication Operations: A coordinated line of effort on communication platforms (website, email marketing, social media marketing, advertisements, SEO, Digital PR) to achieve a specific objective in support of the communication strategy goals.

Communication Strategy: A long-term, holistic plan that achieves communication goals in support of the business or organization’s overall strategy.

Community Relations: An area of public relations with responsibilities for building relationships with constituent publics such as schools, charities, clubs, and activist interests of the neighborhoods or metropolitan area(s) where an organization operates. Community relations involves dealing and communicating with citizens and groups within an organization’s operating area.

Contact Segmentation – The process of separating contact lists into smaller sections according to shared characteristics. Marketers can then target different segments with tailored email campaigns based on what they know about subscribers.

Creative Commons – Creative Commons is a nonprofit corporation dedicated to making it easier for people to share and build upon the work of others, consistent with the rules of copyright. It provides free licenses and other legal tools to mark creative work with the freedom the creator wants it to carry, so others can share, remix, use commercially, or any combination thereof.

Crisis Communication: Protecting and defending an individual, company, or organization facing a public challenge to its reputation. These challenges can involve legal, ethical, or financial standing.

Conversion Rate – Refers to the number of conversions divided by the total number of visitors. For example, if an e-commerce site receives 200 visitors in a month and has 50 sales, the conversion rate would be 50 divided by 200, or 25%. A conversion can refer to any desired action that you want the user to take. This can include anything from a click on a button to making a purchase and becoming a customer.

Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) – Providing support to an event or a cause by devoting corporate resources in exchange for an opportunity to enhance goodwill. The role of PR in CSR is to communicate effectively in order to build corporate accountability and transparency.

Crisis Communication – Protecting and defending an individual, company, or organization facing a public challenge to its reputation. These challenges can involve legal, ethical, or financial standing.

D

De-indexed – Refers to a page or group of pages being removed from Google’s index.

Drip Campaign – A series of automated emails sent to people who take a specific action. For any given action, you can choose how many emails to send and the rate at which to send them. These emails can be personalized with data like the contact’s name, and specific references to the action they took. You might send a drip campaign to someone who signs up for your online course, for example. Or you could send a drip campaign to people who add an item to their online cart without buying it.

Duplicate Content – An SEO term for a block of content that is present on more than one page or website on the internet. It is considered a bad signal for SEO and can result in a search engine penalty. For duplicate content within the same domain, see canonical tags for a solution.

Dynamic Tags – Various SEO page elements that are automatically generated using placeholder tokens to put passable meta tags on all pages of a site quickly. These are used to give pages on a site different titles, meta descriptions, and other SEO elements that are unique for search engines.

E

Editorial – An article or opinion piece written to communicate key messages to the various audiences identified by a client and consultancy.

Email Automation – Email automation is a marketing technique that lets businesses schedule and trigger emails based on date, characteristics of their subscribers, or the behavior their subscribers take. It is sending the perfect email, at the perfect time, to the right person. With as little — or as much— human interaction as you like, you can continuously market to your email list in a highly personalized way.

Email Campaign – One or a series of emails sent to achieve a specific goal for the marketer.

Email Personalization – Taking data of your leads and contacts that they have consented to you and use to create tailor-made email content that is relevant to their interests.

Employee Advocacy – Refers to the act of employees using their own social presence to increase the reach of the company and its content.

Engagement Rate – A popular social media metric used to describe the amount of interaction — likes, shares, comments — a piece of content receives.

F

Featured Snippets – Answer blocks that appear at the top of a search engine results page, featuring content pulled from another web page and displayed on Google.com.

Financial Relations – An aspect of public relations responsible for building relationships with investor publics including shareholders/stockholders, potential investors, financial analysts, the financial markets (such as the stock exchanges and commodities exchanges), and the Securities and Exchange Commission. Also known as investor relations or shareholder relations.

Focus keyphrase – The phrase you’d like your post to rank for. In the past, we used to call it the focus keyword. But, since the internet grew bigger, and more and more content is out there, it’s getting harder to rank on just one word. You should aim to rank for the long tail keyphrases, meaning you should try to rank for a keyphrase consisting of multiple words, especially when you’re just starting with your website. For the SEO analysis in Yoast SEO to work, you need to set a focus keyphrase.

G

Geotag – The directional coordinates that can be attached to a piece of content online. For example, Instagram users often use geotagging to highlight the location in which their photo was taken.

H

Hard Bounce – When an email is returned to a sender for permanent reasons.

Header Tags – An HTML element that’s used to designate a heading. Header tags like H1s may contain a company name, but a very effective way to use an H1 is via a sought-after keyword.

I

Internal Communications – Communicating with employees and shareholders to inform them of change (for instance during a company merger), keep them up to date with company news and developments, or to help achieve corporate objectives.

Impressions – Impressions help measure the number of people who have seen a post, even if they didn’t click, comment, or otherwise engage with that post. They are a particularly important metric on Twitter, Facebook, Instagram, and LinkedIn.

Indexing – The storing and organizing of content found during crawling.

Internal Link – A link on a page on a website that points to another page on the same site. Internal links, largely ignored for many years, have emerged as an important method to help search engines understand and relate the content on a website.

J

Javascript (JS) – Javascript is a scripting language. Javascript is used on web browsers to provide interactive elements to web pages that are difficult or impossible to achieve with just HTML or CSS.

K

Keyword Research – During an SEO campaign, research on competitors and a site’s current rankings helps develop a list of keywords to target for on-page optimization, content development, and link building.

Klout – A measure of social influence. The service allows users to connect various social accounts such as Facebook, Flickr, YouTube, etc., and then provides every user with his or her Klout score. The score is out of 100 — the higher the score, the more influence it estimates you have in the social world.

L

Live Streaming – The act of delivering content over the internet in real-time. This term was popularized in social media by apps such as Meerkat and Periscope.

M

Media Monitoring – The regular surveillance of media sources to track coverage of your own or a competitor organization, and/or issues and topics of relevance to your business or industry.

Media Relations: Mutually beneficial associations between publicists or public relations professionals and journalists as a condition for reaching audiences with messages of news or features of interest (publicity). The function includes both seeking publicity for an organization and responding to queries from journalists about the organization. Maintaining up-to-date lists of media contacts and a knowledge of media audience interests are critical to media relations.

Mention – A Twitter mention is a way to get another user’s attention, likely to try and start a direct conversation with them on the platform. In a nutshell, a Twitter mention is any Tweet that contains the @ symbol followed by another person’s username.

Messages – Agreed words or statements that a client wants to convey to third parties, like the media or shareholders, for example.

Meta description – The short text (up to 155 characters) that you use to describe the content of your page. It appears in the search results as part of the snippet preview, so you should make sure it is inviting for people to click on. You can edit your meta description in the Google preview tab of Yoast SEO. The plugin gives you feedback on the length of your meta description, and it checks if you used your keyphrase in it.

N

Newsjacking – The practice of capitalizing on the popularity of a news story to amplify your sales and marketing success.

Not for Attribution – means that a reporter agrees not to identify a source by name. Identification is provided only by reference to the source’s job or position. That identification must be agreed upon by the reporter and the source and is almost always given in a way that prevents readers from discovering the source’s specific identity. Ex. “A high-ranking official.”

O

Off the Record – restricts the reporter from using the information the source is about to deliver. The information is offered to explain or further a reporter’s understanding of a particular issue or event.

On Background – the source’s name does not appear in the story. In effect, it confers anonymity on your source but allows you to work with the information the source has provided.

On the Record – anything the source says can be reported, published, or aired. All conversations are assumed to be on the record unless the source expressly requests—and the reporter explicitly agrees—to go off the record beforehand. If the reporter agrees to change “on the record” to something else, the reporter should be sure to mark notes clearly so that it’s possible to see what’s on the record and what is not at a later date.

Open Rate – The number of email recipients that opened an email divided by the total number of email recipients; shown as a percentage.

P

Press Release – an official statement or announcement written by a company or organization and issued to media outlets. This can be repurposed or distributed verbatim.

Public Affairs: A specialized area of public relations that builds and maintains mutually beneficial governmental and local community relations. Also applies to public relations practices by the military and governmental agencies because of the 1913 Gillett Amendment.

Public Information: Information open to or belonging to the public. In government agencies, nonprofit organizations, or colleges and universities, the task of disseminating information from the organization to the public. The process is usually done through mass or social media.

Q

Qualitative Research – tprocess of collecting, analyzing, and interpreting non-numerical data, such as language. Qualitative research can be used to understand how an individual subjectively perceives and gives meaning to their social reality.

Quantitative Research – the process of objectively collecting and analyzing numerical data to describe, predict, or control variables of interest.

R

Real-Time Marketing – Reacting in real, or near, real-time. It’s about creating relevant messaging, and it’s achieved on social channels by listening to and anticipating customer needs. Essentially, real-time marketing focuses on current events, trends, or feedback.

Reputation Management: Systematic actions and messages designed to influence what people in key publics think about an organization. Reputation management has long been a function of public relations and is often a priority in crisis management. The increased use of the internet and related social networks has given added urgency to the practice. The immediate and anonymous nature of the web increases the risk of communications that can damage an organization’s reputation. Online reputation management is a growing specialized segment of public relations.

S

Segmentation – The act of grouping your contacts by their characteristics or the actions they take. Segmentation lets you personalize your messages so that each contact gets the information that is most relevant to their needs.

SERP – Stands for “search engine results page” — the page you see after conducting a search.

Social Media Monitoring – The practice of putting in place protocols to monitor incoming mentions of a given topic or brand. Often this will be done with automated social media analytics and monitoring tools. Most crucially, it is designed to alert and enable quick responses from brands, so that negative mentions that may harm the public’s perception of the brand don’t linger.

Social Proof – Social proof takes the form of reviews, existing customers, media coverage, and more. Social Proof covers a similar idea – when people shop, they look for reviews, recommendations, and ways that others have used a product before making their decision.

Soft Bounce – A percentage of addresses you didn’t reach because of temporary reasons such as a problem with a server, full inbox or file size is too big. Although these are the most common reasons, the whole list of reasons is really, really long.

Story – A Snapchat, Facebook, or Instagram story is a string of videos or images that lasts for 24 hours. Users can create stories to be shared publicly or just a customized group of recipients.

T

Talking Points – A cheat sheet of relevant facts and figures that are given to clients or media outlets before interviews.

Transactional Email – A transactional email is a type of email that is triggered by an action on a website or mobile application – usually a purchase. Transactional emails are confirmations of the action and include purchase receipts, order confirmations, password resets, download links, appointment confirmations, and welcome emails to new subscribers.

U

Unsubscribe Rate – The number of email recipients who unsubscribed divided by the total number of email recipients (shown as a percentage), also known as List Churn.

User-Generated Content (UGC) – Blogs, videos, photos, quotes, etc. — that is created by consumers. Marketers typically tap into their audience in an online setting to collect this type of content to support a campaign or initiative.

V

Vlogging – A piece of content that employs video to tell a story or report on information. Vlogs are common on video-sharing networks like YouTube.

W

Workflow – A sequence of automated emails triggered by a user’s behavior or data, for instance, placing an order, shopping cart abandonment, subscription, registration, etc.

White hat – Search engine optimization practices that comply with Google’s quality guidelines.

Word of Mouth Marketing – A marketing method that relies on casual social interactions to promote a product.

X

Y

Z

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